Very-low-energy diets [VLCDs] and morbidity: a systematic review of longer-term evidence.
Mullholland Y, Nicokavoura E, Broom J, Rolland C (2012). British Journal of Nutrition, 108(5):832-51.
‘Current evidence demonstrates significant weight loss and improvements in blood pressure, waist circumference and lipid profile in the longer term following a VLED.’
The effects of very-low-calorie diets on HDL: a review.
Rolland C, Broom I (2011). Cholesterol, 11.
‘This paper investigates the effects of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) used in the treatment of obesity on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. …It would appear that HDL levels usually decrease during active weight loss using a VLCD, but these either return to pre-VLCD levels or improve overall during the weight-maintenance phase.’
Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities.
Hession M et al (2008). Obesity Reviews, 10:36-50
A systematic review found low-carbohydrate diets were more effective at 6 months and as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1 year; furthermore, the attrition rate was higher in low-fat compared with low-carbohydrate groups.
ABC of obesity. Obesity – time to wake up.
Haslam D, Sattar N, Lean M (2006). British Medical Journal, September 23(333):640-642.
‘The rise in obesity and its complications threatens to bankrupt the healthcare system. Early intervention and prevention offer multiple long-term health benefits, and they are the only way towards a sustainable health service.’
Modification of lipoproteins by very low-carbohydrate diets.
Volek JS et al (2005). Journal of Nutrition, June, 135(6):1339-42.
‘Considering the effectiveness of VLCDs in promoting fat loss and improving the metabolic syndrome, discounting or condemning their use is unjustified.’
Obesity and reproductive disorders in women.
Pasquali R, Pelusi C et al (2003). Human Reproduction Update, July-Aug, 9(4):359-72.
On a VLCD, there can be a return to regular cycles, and weight loss is recommended as the primary intervention in the treatment of infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome in obese women.
Very-low-calorie-diets and sustained weight loss.
Saris WH (2001). Obesity Research, Nov, 9(S4):295S-301S.
A VLCD with active follow-up treatment is one of the better treatment modalities related to long-term weight-maintenance success.
Very low energy diets in the treatment of obesity.
Mustajoki P, Pekkarinen T (2001). Obesity Reviews, Feb, 2(1):61-72.
‘VLCDs have no serious harmful effects and can safely be used in patients with various chronic diseases… In type 2 diabetes it may improve long-term glucose metabolism better than conventional weight-reducing diets.’
Long-term efficacy of dietary treatment of obesity: a systematic review of studies published between 1931 and 1999.
Ayyad C, Andersen T (2000). Obesity Reviews, Oct, 1(2):113-9.
Despite the development of pharmacological and surgical treatments, dietetic treatment is still the basic therapeutic tool against obesity.
Lessons from obesity management programmes: greater initial weight loss improves long-term maintenance.
Astrup A, Rössner S (2000). Obesity Reviews, May, 1(1):17-19.
‘It is a common belief that weight loss achieved at a slow rate is better preserved than if the weight is lost more rapidly. However, the literature shows initial weight loss is positively, not negatively, related to long-term weight maintenance.’
Use of very low-calorie diet in preoperative weight loss: efficacy and safety.
Pekkarinen T, Mustajoki P (1997). Obesity Research, Nov, 5(6):595-602.
Pre-operative weight loss with VLCDs does not compromise the immune status of patients, and it is suggested that all patients with morbid obesity undergoing elective surgery should be given the opportunity to reduce weight pre-operatively.
Very low calorie diet (VLCD): a useful alternative in the treatment of the obese NIDDM patient.
Capstick F et al (1997). Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, May, 36(2):105-11.
The short-term use of a VLCD is effective in rapidly improving glycaemic control and promoting substantial weight loss in obese, type 2 diabetic patients. Moreover, a VLCD increases insulin sensitivity and reduces substrate for gluconeogenesis. Thus VLCD treatment may improve glycaemic control by factors more than energy restriction alone.
Reduction of body mass and change in body composition on a very low calorie diet.
Hoie LH, Bruusgaard D, Thom E (1993). International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, Jan, 17(1):17-20.
Weight reduction is mainly due to reduction in body fat, and the loss of lean body mass is considered not to be larger than acceptable.
Benefits and risks of an intensive very-low-calorie diet program for severe obesity.
Anderson JW, Hamilton CC, Brinkman-Kaplan V (1992). American Journal of Gastroenterology, Jan, 87(1):6-15.
‘Comprehensive VLCD programmes produce the large and rapid weight losses needed for medically compromised obese individuals, and the combination of monitored VLCDs with intensive lifestyle education is an excellent choice for the treatment of obesity before opting for surgical intervention.’
Long-term evaluation of cardiac function in obese patients treated with a very-low-calorie diet: a controlled clinical study of patients without underlying cardiac disease.
Doherty JU et al (1991). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Apr, 53(4):854-8.
There were no observed symptoms, arrhythmias or changes in cardiac-condition intervals in obese patients who lost over 20kg on a 16-week VLCD.
No evidence of excessive losses of protein during acute weight loss.
Jebb et al. Poster presented at 8th International Congress on Obesity, Paris, Sept 1998.
This study found no evidence of any significant loss of protein during acute weight loss.
Obesity as a disease.
Jung RT (1997). British Medical Bulletin, 53:307- 321.
As a general rule, blood pressure reduces by 1mm systolic and 2mm diastolic for each 1% reduction in weight.
Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss.
Quaade F, Astrup A (1989). International Journal of Obesity, 13(S2):107-11.
There are important advantages to be gained by prescribing a VLCD at the beginning of a weight-loss programme for as long as possible: weight loss is greater, both overall and in the short term, and the spectacular weight loss brought by a VLCD encourages the patients to adhere longer to the ensuing, less energy-restricted diet.